CWA Twitter CWA Facebook
← Back to All Resources

Resources > Design Guides

Location ...

DLWC (1998) The Constructed Wetlands Manual (two volumes), Department of Land and Water Conservation  (DLWC) Information Centre: Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Sinclair Knight Merz (2000) Guidelines for using free water surface constructed wetlands to treat municipal sewage, DNRQ00047, Queensland Department of Natural Resources: Brisbane, Australia.

Lawrence I., Breen P.F. (1998) Design Guidelines: Stormwater Pollution Control Ponds and Wetlands, The Cooperative Research Centre for Freshwater Ecology: Canberra, Australia.

Wong T.H.F., Breen P.F., Somes N.L.G., Lloyd S. (1999) Managing Urban Stormwater Using Constructed  Wetlands, Cooperative Research Centre for Catchment Hydrology, Monash University: Clayton, Victoria,  Australia.


ÖNORM B 2505 (1997): Bepflanzte Bodenfilter (Pflanzenkläranlagen) – Anwendung, Bemessung, Bau und Betrieb. Österreichisches Normungsinstitut, Vienna, AustriaÖNORM EN 12556-3. (2001) Kleinkläranlagen für bis zu 50 EW. Teil 3: Vorgefertigte und/oder vorOrtmontierte Anlagen zur Behandlung von häuslichem Schmutzwasser (Small wastewater treatment systems up to 50 PT.  Part 3: Packaged and/or site assembled domestic wastewater treatment plants). Vienna, Austria:  Österreichisches Normungsinstitut; 2001. [in German].

ÖNORM B 2505 (2005). Bepflanzte Bodenfilter (Pflanzenkläranlagen) — Anwendung, Bemessung, Bau und Betrieb (Subsurface-flow constructed wetlands — Application, dimensioning, installation and operation). Vienna, Austria: Österreichisches Normungsinstitut; [in German].


City, State, and Regional Alberta Environment (2000) Guidelines for the approval and design of natural and  constructed treatment wetlands for water quality improvement, Alberta Environment Municipal Program Development Branch: Edmonton, Alberta.

Amell B., Chu A., White J. (2004) Constructed Wetlands for Water Quality Improvement: A Design Primer for  the Development Industry, Report to the City of Calgary, June 2004.


DWA-A 262. (2006) Grundsätze für Bemessung, Bau und Betrieb von Pflanzenkläranlagen mit bepflanzten Bodenfiltern zur biologischen Reinigung kommunalen Abwassers. Hennef, Germany:DWA—Deutsche Vereinigung für Wasserwirtschaft, Abwasser und Abfall e.V.. [in German].

DWA-M 178. (2005) Empfehlungen für Planung, Konstruktion und Betrieb von Retentionsbodenfilteranlagen zur  weitergehenden Regenwasserbehandlung im Misch-und Trennsystem. Hennef, Germany:DWA—Deutsche  Vereinigung für Wasserwirtschaft, Abwasser und Abfall e.V. [in German].


IWA Specialist Group on Use of Macrophytes in Water Pollution Control (2000)Constructed Wetlands for Pollution Control: Processes, Performance, Design and Operation. Kadlec R.H., Knight R.L., Vymazal J., Brix H., Cooper P.F., Haberl R. (Eds.), IWA Publishing, London.

Korkusuz E.A. (2005) Manual of Practice on Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment and Reuse in Mediterranean Countries, Added Value Knowledge Report No. 5 (INCOCT- 2003-502453), Agbar Foundation and MED-REUNET (Mediterranean Network on Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse).


Bendoricchio G., Dal Cin L., Persson J. (2000) Guidelines for Free Water Surface Wetland Design, EcoSys Bd. 8, University of Padua: Padua, Italy.

Pucci B., Masi F., Conte G., Martinuzzi N., Bresciani R., (2005) Linee Guida per la Progettazione e Gestione di Zone Umide Artificiali per la Depurazione dei Reflui Civilia cura di M. Mazzoni, APAT – ARPAT, Firenze, Italy [in Italian]

New Zealand

Tanner C.C., Kloosterman V.C. (1997) Guidelines for Constructed Wetland Treatment of Farm Dairy  Wastewaters in New Zealand, NIWA Science and Technology Series No. 48, National Institute of Water and  Atmospheric Research (NIWA): Hamilton, New Zealand.

Tanner, C.C.; Sukias, J.P.S.; Yates, C.R. (2010). New Zealand guidelines: Constructed Wetland Treatment of Tile Drainage. NIWA Information Series No. 75, National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research Ltd (NIWA). Hamilton, New Zealand.

Obsolete Manuals

Chan E., Bursztynsky T.A., Hantshe N., Litwin Y.J. (1982) The Use of Wetlands for Water Pollution Control, EPA/600/2-82/036.
Cooper P.F. (Ed.) (1990) European design and operations guidelines for reed bed treatment systems, WRc: Swindon, United Kingdom.Hyde H.C., Ross R.S., Demgen F. (Eds.) (1984) Technology Assessment of Wetlands for Municipal Wastewater Treatment, EPA/600/2-84/154; NTIS No. 85-106896.
Reed S.C., Crites R., Middlebrooks E.J. (1988) Natural Systems for Waste Management and Treatment. 1st ed., McGraw-Hill, New York.
U.S. EPA (1983b) Design principles for wetland treatment systems, EPA 600/2-83/026, Hammer D.A., Kadlec R.H. (Eds.), National Technical Information Service.
U.S. EPA (1985) Freshwater Wetlands for Wastewater Management Handbook, EPA/904/9-85/135, Atlanta, Georgia.
U.S. EPA (1987) Report on the use of wetlands for municipal wastewater treatment and disposal, EPA 430/09-88/005, U.S. EPA Office of Water.
U.S. EPA (1988b) Design manual: Constructed wetlands and aquatic plant systems for municipal wastewater treatment, EPA 625/1-88/022, U.S. EPA Office of Water: Cincinnati, Ohio.
U.S. EPA (1993f) Subsurface flow constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment: A technology assessment, EPA 832/R- 93/001, U.S. EPA Office of Water.
Water Environment Federation (1990) Natural Systems for Wastewater Treatment (WEF Manual of Practice FD-16). Chapter 13: Wetland Systems. 1st ed., Water Environment Federation, Alexandria, Virginia.


Constructed Wetland Association (2017), CWA DESIGN GUIDELINES: Constructed Wetlands to Treat Domestic Septic Tank Effluent

J Griggs and N J Grant (2000) Good Building Guide – Reedbeds: Application and Specification (Part 1) IHS BREJ Griggs and N J Grant (2000) Good Building Guide – Reedbeds: Design, Construction and Maintenance (Part 2) IHS BRE

Cooper P.F., Job G.D., Green B., Shutes R.B.E. (1996) Reed beds and constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. WRc Publications. Swindon, United Kingdom.

PIRAMID Consortium (2003a) Engineering guidelines for the passive remediation of acidic and/or  metalliferous mine drainage and similar wastewaters,European Commission 5th Framework RTD Project no. EVK-CT-1999-000021,“Passive In-Situ Remediation of Acidic Mine/Industrial Drainage” (PIRAMID), University of Newcastle Upon Tyne: Newcastle Upon Tyne, United Kingdom.


Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (2003) Technical and Regulatory Guidance Document for Constructed Treatment Wetlands.

TVA (1993) General design, construction, and operation guidelines: Constructed wetlands wastewater treatment systems for small users including individual residences; 2nd ed., TVA/WM-93/10, Steiner G.R., Watson J.T. (Eds.), Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Resource Group Water Management: Chattanooga, Tennessee.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (2000) Wetlands Engineering Handbook, Report No. ERDC/EL TR-WRP-RE-21, Hayes D.F., Olin T.J., Fischenich J.C., Palermo M.R. (Eds.), U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center: Washington, D.C.

U.S. EPA (2000a) Constructed wetlands treatment of municipal wastewaters, EPA 625/R-99/010, U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development: Washington, D.C.

U.S. EPA (2000c) Guiding principles for constructed treatment wetlands: Providing water quality and wildlife habitat, EPA 843/B-00/003, U.S. EPA Office of Wetlands, Oceans, and Watersheds.

Wallace S.D., Knight R.L. (2006) Small-scale constructed wetland treatment systems: Feasibility, design criteria, and O&M requirements, Final Report, Project 01-CTS-5, Water Environment Research Foundation: Alexandria, Virginia.

Water Environment Federation (2001) Natural Systems for Wastewater Treatment (WEF Manual of Practice FD-16). 2nd ed., Water Environment Federation, Alexandria, Virginia.

Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (1995) Arizona guidance manual for constructed wetlands for  water quality improvement, ADEQ TM 95-1, Knight R.L., Randall R., Girts M., Tress J.A., Wilhelm M., Kadlec R.H. (Eds.).

Indiana Department of Environmental Management (1997) Constructed wetland wastewater treatment facilities guidance, Water-001-NPD.

LEC (2000) Draft guidelines for constructed stormwater wetlands, Report by Lilley Environmental Consulting (LEC) for the City of Edmonton Drainage Service.

Pineywoods RC&D (2001) Constructed Wetlands in East Texas (4 volumes). Pineywoods Resource Conservation and Development Council (RC&D), Nagodoches, Texas.

SDDENR (1991) Recommended Design Criteria Manual, Wastewater Collection and Treatment Facilities, South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources (SDDENR): Pierre, South Dakota.

Watershed Protection (CWP) for the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, New York.

CH2M Hill, Payne Engineering (1997) Constructed Wetlands for Animal Waste Treatment, Report to the Gulf of Mexico Program Nutrient Enrichment Committee, U.S. EPA: Stennis Space Center, Mississippi.

Knight R.L. (2004) Use of constructed wetland effluent treatment systems in the pulp and paper industry, Technical Bulletin No. 876, National Council for Air and Stream Improvement, Inc. (NCASI): Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

McBrien M. (2000) The Wisconsin Stormwater Manual: Artificial Wetland Storm Water Management, University of Wisconsin Cooperative Extension Publishing: Madison, Wisconsin.

Schueler T.R. (1992) Design of Stormwater Wetland Systems: Guidelines for Creating Diverse and Effective Stormwater Wetlands in the Mid-Atlantic Region, Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments: Washington, D.C.